Literature

Norwegian heroes
   
     
     
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) was a Norwegian writer, folklore collector and scientist, known to many as the “fairytale king”. Asbjørnsen began collecting fairytales from the mid-1830s. He worked with his friend Jørgen Moe and together they became they become a synonym for Norwegian fairytales. The publication "Norwegian Folktales” (1841) was the first literary work that was not written in Danish. Asbjørnsen’s literary works have had a major influence on Norwegian literature. Asbjørnsen was a very keen scientist, and after 1850 he sacrificed most of his time on zoological and economic studies. The portraits of both Asbjørnsen and Moe adorn each side of the tail on Norwegian’s aircraft LN-DYR.  

 
   Aircraft: LN-DYR

 

     
     
André Bjerke (1918-1985) was a Norwegian writer, poet and debater. His debut came in 1940 with a collection of poems called "Syngende Jord" (Singing Earth). He has written a wide range of material for children and adults, as well as mystery novels (four of them under the pseudonym Bernhard Borge), essays and articles. He also translated works by Shakespeare, Molière, Goethe and Racine into elegant Norwegian. A central theme in Bjerke's works, especially in his poems, is the longing for childhood. Bjerke was a dedicated pioneer of television and participated in the trial broadcasts in the late 1950s and constantly appeared on TV during the 1960s and 1970s.   André Bjerke
   Aircraft: LN-DYM
     
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (1832-1910) was a Norwegian writer, poet and commentator. He wrote a wide range of everything from peasant tales, plays and poetry to novels, articles, speeches and letters. Bjørnson renewed storytelling in Norway with his peasant tales in terms of form, style and human portrayal. He also founded the modern saga drama and contemporary bourgeois drama and wrote the first realistic problem dramas. Bjørnson wrote Norway's national anthem "Ja, vil elsker," a song with which the Norwegian people strongly identify. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1903 and is considered to be one of "The Four Great" Norwegian writers alongside Henrik Ibsen, Jonas Lie and Alexander Kielland.
  Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
   Aircraft: LN-DYB
     
Camilla Collet (1813-1895) was a Norwegian author, writer and feminist activist whose older brother was poet Henrik Wergeland. She is recognised for being one of the first contributors to realism in Norwegian literature. As Norway's first major female author, she has paved way for writers like Amalie Skram and Sigrid Undset. Norwegian poets like Jonas Lie, Alexander Kielland and Henrik Ibsen were also admirers of her work. Her most famous work is her only novel, "Amtmandens Døtre" ("The District Governor's Daughters"). The book deals with the difficulties of being a woman in a patriarchical society in general and forced marriages specifically. It is believed that her personal experiences in life influenced the book.   Camilla Collet
   Aircraft: LN-NOP
     
Thorbjørn Egner (1912-1990) was a popular Norwegian artist and writer. His breakthrough was on a children's radio show in the early 1950s. Two of Egner's books have been made into successful musicals with music by the author himself. Egner's work has left a big impression on children growing up in Norway; his books, songs, texts and characters have become national icons. His story about Caries and Bacties has been immortalized in a puppet film, and a full-scale Cardamom Town has been built at Kristiansand Zoo in southern Norway. His books have, to date, been translated into 20 languages and are still as popular as ever, despite being more than 50 years old.   Thorbjørn Egner
   Aircraft: LN-DYW
     
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is by many considered to be the greatest playwright since William Shakespeare. He is often referred to as "the father of prose drama" and is one of the founders of Modernism in the theatre. His major works include "Brand"; "Peer Gynt"; "An Enemy of the People"; "A Doll's House"; "Hedda Gabler"; "Ghosts"; "The Wild Duck" and "The Master Builder". His work is constantly being played in theatres worldwide. Although most of his plays are set in Norway, often in places reminiscent of Skien, the port town where he grew up, for 27 years Ibsen lived in Italy and Germany.   Henrik Ibsen
   Aircraft: LN-NOG
     
Jørgen Moe (1813-1882) was a Norwegian writer, folklore collector, poet and bishop. He is best known for collaborating with Peter Christer Asbjørnsen in collecting Norwegian folk tales. He had taken an interest in fairy tales and folk songs from a young age. Together with Asbjørnsen, he collected traditional folk tales and published a collection that can be compared to the German tales by the Grimm brothers. Not only did they collect and secure parts of the wealth of Norwegian fairy tales and edit them, but in doing this, they also contributed to the development of the Norwegian language. Moe was educated as a priest and in 1875 he became bishop of Kristiansand in southern Norway. The portraits of both Asbjørnsen and Moe adorn each side of the tail on Norwegian’s aircraft LN-DYR.   Asbjørnsen og Moe
   Aircraft: LN-DYR
     
Amalie Skram (1846-1905) was a Norwegian writer and feminist who gave a voice to women with her naturalist writing. She is considered to be one of the most important female writers of the Modern Breakthrough. Her work, which raised many difficult issues, can be divided into three categories: novels concerning marriage and female sexuality, multi-generation novels and mental hospital works such as "Professor Hieronimus" and "Paa St. Jørgen", which dealt with the primitive and brutal conditions institutions during this period. She is recognized as an early and strong supporter of the women's movement. Her works, which had been generally forgotten with her death, were rediscovered and received strong recognition in the 1960s.   Amalie Skram
   Aircraft: LN-DYL
     
Sigrid Undset (1882-1949) received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1928 "for her powerful descriptions of life in the Nordic countries in the Middle Ages". Her best-known work is "Kristin Lavransdatter" and "Olav Audunssøn". Her breakthrough novel "Jenny", from the artist community in Rome, was published in 1911. Undset lived in Bjerkebæk in Lillehammer from 1919-1949. However, when Germany invaded Norway in April 1940, she was forced to flee and ended up in the US, where she wrote articles and gave lectures for a free Norway. She had criticised Hitler strongly since the early 1930s and her books were banned in Nazi Germany. Following the war, she was celebrated for her extensive contributions to Norway during the war.   Sigrid Undset
   Aircraft: LN-NGX
     
Aasmund Olavson Vinje (1818-1870) was a Norwegian author and journalist with a law background. He did not feel comfortable with the Danish-Norwegian written language and was one of the first who actively began using the Norwegian national language that Ivar Aasen had developed. At the same time he began to publish his own magazine, "Dølen". Here, he published travel accounts, editorial comments on art, language and politics. Vinje was among the sophisticated exponents of Norwegian romantic nationalism, but despite this, he was also known for his critical scepticism. He was politically active to the extent that the government fired him from his work as an attorney for criticizing its foreign policy.   Aasmund Olavson Vinje
   Aircraft: LN-DYI
     
Henrik Wergeland (1808-1845) was a Norwegian writer, most celebrated for his poetry, but also a prolific playwright, debater, historian and linguist. He has been described as a leading pioneer in the development of a distinctly Norwegian literary heritage and of modern Norwegian culture. Wergeland's views were controversial for his time and his literary style was often described as rebellious. He did pioneering work on several areas of society after Norway's independence and contributed hugely to making the new state a cultural nation. He also engaged in oppressed people's struggle for freedom in countries like Poland, Ireland and Brazil.   Henrik Wergeland
   Aircraft: LN-NOE
     
Swedish heroes
   
     
Elsa Beskow (1874-1953) was a Swedish writer and illustrator best known for her beautiful children's books. Among her better known books are "Tale of the Little Little Old Woman" and "Aunt Green, Aunt Brown and Aunt Lavender". In 1894, Beskow started to contribute to the children's magazine "Jultomten". Overall, she would publish some forty books with her own texts and images. Beskow frequently combined reality with elements from the fairytale world. Children meet elves or goblins, and farm animals talk with people. Central themes were the relationships between children and adults and children's independent initiative.   Elsa Beskow
   Aircraft: LN-DYV
     
Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) was a Swedish author and the first female writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. She was best known for her children's book "Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige" ("The Wonderful Adventures of Nils"). Most of her stories are set in her native Värmland. Lagerlöf worked as a country schoolteacher at a high school for girls while honing her story-telling skills. Her first break as a writer came when she submitted the first chapters to a literary contest, and won a publishing contract for the whole book. Lagerlöf was involved in women's rights and was a speaker for the Country Association for Women's Suffrage.   Selma Lagerlöf
   Aircraft: LN-NOH
     
Danish heroes
   
     
Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875), often referred to by his initials H. C. Andersen, was a Danish author and poet, best known for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier"; "The Snow Queen"; "The Little Mermaid"; "Thumbelina"; "The Little Match Girl" and "The Ugly Duckling". These have been translated into more than 100 languages and inspired motion pictures, plays, ballets and animated films. In 1835, Andersen published the first instalment of his immortal "Fairy Tales". More stories, completing the first volume, were published in 1836 and 1837. The quality of these stories was not immediately recognised, and sold poorly. At the same time, Andersen enjoyed more success with novels "O.T." and "Only a Fiddler".   Hans Christian Andersen
   Aircraft: LN-DYD
     
Karen Blixen (1885-1962) was a Danish writer who for many years lived in Africa and worked as a manager of a coffee farm in Kenya. Blixen is best known for "Out of Africa", her account of living in Kenya, and one of her stories, "Babette's Feast", both of which have been adopted into highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning motion pictures. Blixen followed a traditional style of storytelling, and most of her work takes place against the background of the 19th century or earlier periods. Many of her ideas can be traced back to those of Romanticism.   Karen Blixen
   Aircraft: LN-DYN
     
Georg Brandes (1842-1927) was a Danish critic and literary scholar who had a big influence on Scandinavian literature from the 1870s until the beginning of the 20th century. When he was 30 years old, Brandes formulated the principles of a new realism and naturalism, in which he condemned the aesthetic style and fantasy in literature. According to Brandes, literature should convey "ideas of liberty and human progress". His literary goal was shared with many writers, including Henrik Ibsen. Georg Brandes has been considered a source of inspiration for the left-wing intellectual movement in the interwar period, the so-called cultural radicalism.   Georg Brandes
   Aircraft: LN-DYJ
     
Finnish heroes
   
     
Minna Canth (1844-1897) was a Finnish writer and social activist. Her work addresses issues of women's rights, particularly in the context of a prevailing culture she considered hostile to permitting expression and realization of women's aspirations. Her play "The Pastor's Family" is her best known. In her time, she became a controversial figure, due to the asynchrony between her ideas and those of her time, and in part due to her strong advocacy for her point of view. Minna Canth is the first woman to receive her own flag day in Finland, starting on 19 March 2007. It is also the day of social equality in Finland.  
   Aircraft: LN-NIF
     

Johan Ludvig Runeberg (1804-1877) is the national poet of Finland. He wrote in Swedish and many of his poems dealt with life in rural Finland. His works, combining classicism with romantic feeling and an understanding of peasant life and character, include the epic poems "The Moose Hunters" (1832) and "Hanna" (1836). Runeberg's most famous work is "The Tales of Ensign Stål", written between 1848 and 1860. It is considered the greatest Finnish epic poem outside the native Kalevala tradition and contains tales of the Finnish War of 1808–09 with Russia. His patriotic poem "Our Country", from "The tales of Ensign Stål", is the Finnish national anthem.

  Johan Ludvig Runeberg
   Aircraft: LN-NIA
     
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